I Classici del Cinema – Quarto Potere


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L’American Film Institute lo ha nominato il miglior film di tutti i tempi. La leggenda di Quarto Potere [1940] nasce ancor prima della sua realizzazione, quando ad un giovanissimo regista, giunto dal teatro e dalla radio, la RKO decide di concedere una libertà d’espressione senza precedenti. Il magnate dell’editoria William Hearst, alla cui vita il film si ispira, muove mari e monti per fermare la realizzazione della pellicola e, non riuscendoci, mette in campo il suo enorme potere mediatico per tentare di screditarla. Ma al di là di questo, Quarto potere è di straordinario interesse per innumerevoli ragioni. Il film narra una grande storia: Charles Foster Kane [interpretato in modo brillante dallo stesso Orson Welles] è nato povero, ma diventa ricco grazie ad una miniera d’oro ricevuta in eredità. Inizia a mettere in piedi un impero di giornali e radio populisti, candidandosi anche a governatore. La conquista di un potere più solido però non riesce e Kane diventa sempre più dispotico e misantropo, fino a morire in solitudine in una sorta di castello mai terminato.

Il film inizia con la sua morte e con la sua ultima enigmatica parola: “Rosabella“, a cui un gruppo di reporter cerca di dar conto intervistando molte delle conoscenze del magnate. Tutta la vicenda è quindi raccontata per flashback, secondo il punto di vista degli intervistati, in una complessità narrativa assolutamente inedita per Hollywood. Inoltre una vera rivoluzione del film sta nelle sue riprese: prima di Quarto Potere lo stile fotografico vigente si basava sull’uso di un’illuminazione diffusa e del flou. Una tipica sequenza consisteva in un campo lungo o medio introduttivo, inframmezzato da primi piani in cui venivano mostrati i dettagli. Welles invece, attraverso una nuova tecnologia per cui il primo piano, il mezzo campo e lo sfondo risultano tutti a fuoco nello stesso tempo, consente allo spettatore di scrutare ogni parte dell’inquadratura come mai successo prima di allora. L’unicità di questo capolavoro è quindi data dall’uso radicalmente nuovo delle tecniche di narrazione, dalla fotografia, agli effetti del sonoro, al montaggio.

Questo post è catalogato in 40, cinema, classici, welles. Vai al permalink.

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